Student Involvement in Assessment

Today I am reading this: https://www.k12albemarle.org/acps/division/fql/Pages/Assessment-Analysis-Communication-and-Feedback.aspx

It states, “Student involvement in assessment is key to unlocking the potential of assessment as a learning tool.”

The information on the page was very useful to help me think about my assessment practices in school. I use rubrics frequently in home economics lessons to assess student work, such as projects and practicals. I craft the rubrics, never the students.

My thoughts are :

  1. I like the process outlined on the page about getting students to craft rubrics, but my challenge will be to find the in-class time to do this. I see my students every other week for a total of about twelve 1hr 20 min lessons over the year. Finding time will be tough!
  2. OMG, I really need to rethink some of my rubrics and probably reduce some of the learning targets!
  3. Why do I use a range of marks for bands? Why don’t I just use single marks for bands?
  4. For a practical session, there should be a rubric for each product so students can determine mastery. Also how can I give them models without wasting food?

I’ve summarised that page below for my own internalisation. I suggest reading the actual site yourself because it is more detailed.

Questions I am supposed to ask myself are:

  1. How do I assure that assessments will be useful measurements of learning?
  • Begin with learning aspects which are specific and written in accessible language
  • Limit the number of learning targets (usually 3 to 4) so that learners are not overwhelmed and have ample time to master essential content and skills

2. How do I encourage students to assess their work?

  • Use well written rubrics
    • Focuses only on a few learning targets
    • Contains student friendly language
    • Provides descriptive detail that defines various levels of success
    • Descriptions of quality are more useful than quantity

A process for teaching students how to self-assess / evaluate work using a rubric.

  1. Start by getting students to assess model or anchor papers. (Even if you just do this, it will be good learning for the students)
  2. Look at extreme samples (one which is very good and one which is really bad), get students to identify strengths and weaknesses and craft the rubric from student suggestions. (Ask them, what does success look like?)
  3. Practice the strategies to improve the work together
  4. Analyse mid-range pieces of work
  5. Focus on one learning target at a time so students can isolate the intended learning
  6. Get students to work in pairs to score and improve anonymous student work
  7. Students then score and improve their own work

3. How do I develop relationships with students that promote student involved assessment?

Be:

  • present
  • open
  • listening without judgment
  • Seek common understandings
  • View learning as mutual

I should seek to inspire students through my own passion for ongoing growth and show learners why they should be committed to their own development.

Continually ask myself, “What grading practices motivate students to continually strive for mastery and excellence?”

4. How do I set up situations so that students are more involved in determining the course of their learning?

  • Systematically engage them in shared goal setting.
  • In order to set goals and monitor their own progress, they must clearly understand what learning is essential.
  • Students who are involved in setting goals and have a clear understanding of their mission, they have a sense of ownership, self-awareness, and control of their own development over time. The inclusive process makes students intrinsically motivated.
  • Questions to ask students
    • “What are your strengths and weakness in the discipline at hand?”
    • “What do you see as the greatest challenge for you as you move towards mastery in this area?”
    • “How will this goal inform your next steps as a learner?” 

5. What are some ways that students can use their communication skills to empower themselves in their learning?

  • Portfolios
  • Student-planned and lead conferences with teachers and parents. Students should select the work they wish to discuss, identify strengths and weaknesses and share their learning goals

Framework provided on that website and attributed to Stiggins, 2004:

  • Learning target/s
  • Evidence of where I started
  • Evidence of where I am now
  • What I did to improve
  • What I can do now that I couldn’t do before
  • What to notice about my work
  • Date of conference
  • Start and end time of conference
  • Participant(s)
  • Comments of participant(s)

Engaging student work

I was asked to reflected on the ‘quality learning of students’ during the full home-based learning (fHBL) period.

So I started with asking myself, “What is ‘quality learning’?”

The first result on Google is this:

Learning that is purposeful, learning in which learners are provided with the ability to effectively learn, and retain skills and knowledge gained. It is usually associated with or based on student satisfaction with the learning process.” [Source]

A bit more digging produced this website that has a framework for quality learning.

In going through that site, I was particularly drawn to the last bit on ‘Qualities of Engaging Student Work

Based on the way some of the learners responded to the lessons, that is, they mainly showed a total lack of interest in it, I would say that I really need to increase the engagement factor of my lessons. Sometimes I get so caught up in the “delivery of knowledge” that I forget these basic principals.

To internalise what the site says about engaging student work, I have attempted to write it here in my own words.

Qualities of Engaging Student Work

1. Personal Response – Work that is engaging to students is work that is significant to the student (ie, it is meaningful to them). So when students respond (ie, explain their answers or their logic/reasoning to the answers, they are more personally invested. It shouldn’t be them giving the one correct answer, because that is just recall. Instead it should be them making predictions, connections, comparisons, saying “I think… because…” etc. It is best when everyone can give a personal response, therefore it is probably more useful for everyone to write their response instead of just a handful of students giving their verbal response.

2. Clear / modelled expectations of what success looks like – For example, these will be in the form of clear objectives of an activity and what learning outcomes are expected, visual exemplars or rubrics and self-assessment, clear formats and procedures, quantity and quality of personal responses expected etc.

3. Emotional and intellectual safety when giving personal responses – Students are more engaged when they do not have to fear embarrassment, punishment, or implications that they are inadequate. More safety is required especially when learners have to give personal responses that are supported with logic, reasoning or explanations.

4. Learning has a social component – Students are more engaged when their work permits, encourages, and supports opportunities for them to work interdependently with others. This is different from students working independently on a common task which is what most group work is. Examples of this include think-pair-share, small group discussion, peer revision or review, students expressing an opinion based on work that another student has done.

5. Students work is shared so that they feel they have an audience (that is not just the teacher) – Students are highly motivated when parents, significant others, peers make it known to the student that their work is important. Portfolios that show student work play a role in making student work more visible.

6. Students have choice and meaningful options – Students are more engaged when they have a choice over what they are doing and are more likely to feel committed to it. Examples of this include tiered assignments, self-selected reading materials, choice on product they produce or how they decide to present their final work (e.g. graphic organiser vs essay vs in a song), selecting tasks from a list. I must be careful not to overwhelm the students with choice.

7. There is surprise and variety in the learning experiences – Give the students new and different ways of doing things.  New technology and techniques, however, shouldn’t be used to create new ways to do the same old work- new forms of work and new products are equally important. Students can produce a variety of products, all contribute different perspectives on a topic, have fun integrated into their lesson such as through gamification, be according to the students interests, include stimulations and role plays, respond to “in the voice of”

8. Authentic to the learner by connecting it to their prior knowledge and experiences – So the work should be relevant to the age group, somehow represents the personalities of the learners, has activities that are connected to real life, inquiry or discovery learning, hands-on activities, based on current events and issues, allows students to transfer and synthesise the knowledge beyond just content given to them.

I am going to keep coming back to this over and over again.

Changes

I was asked, “What are some of the changes in your life you have had to make as a result of adapting to online teaching?”

The biggest change has been in making exercise, movement and eye-rest a very conscious and deliberate thing. Physically speaking, online teaching requires that I sit for long periods of time in front of a computer, so I have to remind myself to get up and move my body, even if it’s just to go to the kitchen to make myself some tea. I also try to do the ‘stare at something at least 6 m away’ every 20 minutes.

The next change I have had to make is to let go of rigid control over my learners. The fact is that if they are not attempting my work at the allocated time period, there is only so much I can do about that. Also, if students are working on another piece of work before my period and are in a state of flow, do I really want to try and force them to stop just so that they can work on my subject? As a teacher, I am supposed to provide structure and instil discipline, but I think there are better and more appropriate ways to do so. Learning, especially online, is not always going to happen at the time I say it is going to happen.

Another change I have made is to increase my time spent on learning how to teach online. Although I am digitally savvy and count myself as a relatively competent face-to-face teacher, I still struggled a lot with online teaching. There’s definitely an art to delivering teaching online and I realised I have a lot of knowledge and skill gaps in that art. Hence, I have embarked on trying to fill those gaps.

Brief reflection on teaching online

This morning’s read: E-Tutoring: Teaching, Supporting, Managing and Assessing Students Online

Here are my responses to some of the questions posed on their website:

What would it mean to you for your students to be “empowered” by online learning? 

It would mean that students can learn at anytime and anywhere, as long as they have some sort of learning device and an internet connection.

They can attain mastery as they can practice repeatedly and gain immediate feedback.

They can help themselves and help each other through platforms such as forums.

What are the emerging learning needs for experts in your discipline, how might these change the emphasis of existing course objectives and how might online learning support these? 

I think we need to learn how to design curriculum with e-learning in mind. There is definitely a question of how to teach practical skills (such as cooking) online, or even more challenging, how do you assess those practical skills online?

What are your personal opportunities and concerns for e-learning and e-tutoring?

Opportunities – I see e-tutoring (or teaching online / HBL) as an opportunity to expand my skillset. The website mentions that a good face-to-face teacher may not necessarily be a good online tutor, even if the technical abilities are added. I also see e-tutoring as a way of expanding my reach with my teaching.

Concerns – I have often heard Web 2.0 applications being likened to a microphone. It will amplify whatever voice is put to it, whether the singer is good or bad. I am concerned that if I am not so competent in my online teaching, that this will be magnified in some way.

Using ePortfolios or blogs for Home Economics lessons

An ePortfolio, is a website that enables students to collate digital evidence of their learning. Sort of like how I am using this blog as digital evidence of my learning. 

How an ePortfolio or blog can enhance learning

  • It increases peer and collaborative learning between students and teachers when ePortfolios are made visible to other students. For example, students can view each other’s finished products after a cooking class and learn where their peers have done well or not so well.
  • Students have a place to document their achievement and because it can be made visible to peers and the public, it would make the work more meaningful for them (and possibly make them take their work more seriously.) 
  • Would allow students and teacher to look back at the students previous work, any assumptions they might have had on a topic, discussions and work processes
  • ePortfolios accommodate a range of learning styles because it can contain a wide range of files, such as text documents, pictures, videos, links to websites and other online resources. This would be a great way for students to store pictures of the dishes they have cooked or mind maps they have done. Students could even use the portfolio to store pictures/pdfs of their worksheets. 
  • Students will be able to receive more feedback and in a more timely manner because it will be easier for teachers to monitor students’ progress.
  • Increased feedback from teachers will encourage students to reflect more deeply on their own learning
  • Process work can be recorded (instead of just finished products), which would make it easier for students to be reflective of their learning. For example, students could add video clips of their cooking techniques.
  • If students can leave comments on each other’s work which helps students to develop digital literacy skills that enables them to become fully participatory citizens in society

Other advantages of using an ePortfolio or blog

  • Teachers can more easily form supportive relationships with students over the course of their study through interacting with the student’s portfolio
  • Reduces the need to pass bulky portfolios back and forth between teacher and student
  • ePortfolios can help students stay organised 
  • Students become more confident in co-producing class knowledge and content
  • Students can get help on their work outside of class hours from each other and the teacher
  • Students can express their opinions online. This might be good for students who are more shy.

Challenges 

  • Time needed to teach students how to use the e-portfolio unless they have learnt during another subject (FCE has very limited face time with the students so this can be challenging)
  • Time needed at the beginning to set up the structure of the ePortfolio for the students.
  • Some students may be apprehensive about using the technology and may need considerable support
  • Students may not have access to the technology to make it easy for them to build the ePortfolio
  • Possible increase in workload if the teacher doesn’t determine at the beginning the how and when the ePortfolio should be graded

Possible ways to overcome challenges

  • Set aside time after school to teach students the technology
  • Create explainer videos for the students so they can teach themselves
  • Have a clear plan right in the beginning on how the ePortfolio should be used (e.g. a repository of finished work? Process work?) and what, how and when comments should be given to students and grading should be done.

Possible platforms that can be used for an ePortfolio or blog

Free platforms

  • Google Sites 
  • Microsoft OneNote
  • Blogging platforms such as WordPress, Blogger, TypePad
  • Padlet

Paid platforms

  • PebblePad seems like a great platform because there are built in ways to grade the portfolio / blog, but you cannot trial the product as an individual and plans start from £25/year (SGD$43.25; AUD$46.75). 

Some articles on ePortfolios

4 ways ePortfolios are going beyond college resume building

Applying Kerry Gallagher’s ‘What If’s to Home Economics lessons

Today I searched Google for “considerations for putting student work on social media” and this is the first link that appeared. It was written by Kerry Gallagher. As sometimes happens with surfing the internet, I went down a little bit of a rabbit hole and landed up watching her TEDx talk:

Here are some of my take-aways from the video.

  1. Technology must enhance student’s learning (Ok, this is not new, but I feel it’s important to repeat to myself so that I don’t get caught up in just the hype of the technology.)
  2. Use digital quizzes for Assessment for Learning (AfL). When students can see where others are making mistakes, they feel less alone. Also, instant feedback is motivating.
  3. Technology enhances group work and allows everyone to work on areas that they are stronger in.
  4. Technology allows students to contact experts. Her students contacted creators of certain apps / online tools.
  5. Publish student work or allow students to publish their work – on blogs, on social media, etc. This makes the work meaningful for the students because they can gain recognition from others (as opposed to just doing work to obtain a grade).

How I can apply this to Food & Consumer Education / Food & Nutrition / Food technology lessons:

  1. Mantra: Technology must enhance student’s learning.
  2. Use quiz function in Student Learning Space for AfL. Though student’s cannot see other’s results, the students can get instant feedback and see immediately where they need to clarify their learning.
  3. Incorporate the use of technology for Sec 1 group projects. This allows for differentiation, ie, students can use their strengths to work on different aspects of the project.
  4. The Sec 3, 4 and 5 students contact chefs, food scientists, nutritionists or food entrepreneurs.
  5. Students to contribute to food blogs, YouTube channels and publish their recipes. Give students a specific # to use to share their food creations.